Education

Easy Maintenance

Keep Your Machine Working; Your Repairman Not So Much

I once had a lady bring me her machine to look at and see if I could tell why it wasn’t sewing so slowly and not acting right. I asked when it had last been in for service and how frequently she cleaned it. Service was at least 25 years prior and she didn’t know you were suppose to do anything to a machine but sew on it. Oh, my! I knew this would be interesting!

I’ll finish this story later. For right now, lets make sure your machine never gets like hers.

Tools for Cleaning

Items found in most homes are all that are needed for cleaning. Substituting cotton ball and toothpick for cotton swabs is fine. Brushes from the kids paint set work fine as long as they are clean and not loosing bristles. Tweezers are really helpful. Lint free rags or cut up t-shirts are super. A wooden skewer with a point is one of my favorite tools because it is long, the tip will bend if I am not being gentle, and it can be made into a super cotton swab! A towel lined cookie sheet works great for holding all the parts and their screws so when it is time to put everything back together you aren’t looking for the part you dropped and the dog went to bury in the backyard, or trying to figure out which screw came from where.

Remove all thread from the machine and put it on the tray. Remove the bobbin from the case as it will be cleaned later. Disconnect the power to your machine.

Let the Cleaning Begin

One rule when cleaning – NO BLOWING! It will be tempting to move that piece of dust out of a crevice with a quick puff, but you just might blow it back further than we can clean, plus you blow moisture into the system which is not advisable.

Before we begin, please read cleaning/maintenance/oiling portion of the manual for your machine and follow the manufacturer’s instructions. What I will cover should not void any warranty as it is simple maintenance to keep your machine running smoothly and giving you great stitches. I have a number of machines made by different manufacturers; cleaning is the same for all. There are limits to how far you can get into the computerized machines for cleaning, which is understandable. Older and non-computerized machines most often allow you access to all areas if the cover pieces can be removed with the screwdrivers that came with the machine or found in most tool boxes.

Remove the needle. If you don’t remember when you last changed your needle, it is time, so properly dispose of it. The needle will be replaced later.

Check all around where the needle goes and wipe or brush away any lint or debris. Turn the wheel so more of the armature is exposed for cleaning.

Next, remove the plate cover; it is the metal cover where the needle disappears when sewing. Some are held by screws; others just pop off. The feed dogs will now be exposed. Wipe the plate cover with a lint free cloth, both top and bottom and if necessary brush lint, threads, or anything in the open slots so it will be ready to reinstall later. Place on towel (with screw if there were any).

The feed dog area is where you will likely find the most buildup of threads and lint. Carefully brush the teeth and beneath them to remove debris. If your brushes don’t grab the lint, place a cloth on the bottom on the machine to catch anything that falls. Remove the cloth carefully when done. Sometimes lint and threads have been there so long they have packed together and don’t want to let go. This is when the pointed skewer comes in handy to gently nudge it loose so it will come free. Anything but gentle cleaning can damage parts. Use brushes to reach all areas you can to remove what should not be there. A lint free rag used with the tweezers is also a handy aid. Cotton swabs are good for many areas. Reach as far back into the machine as you can, being super careful to not push any lint or threads further back where you cannot get to them. When content you have removed all lint and threads, we will move to the next area where threads and build up can cause problems.

Again, refer to your manual on dismantling your bobbin shuttle for cleaning. Top loading bobbin cleaning will be a bit different. Follow the manual instructions.

Side and front loading bobbins have a round metal or plastic ring around the shuttle, generally secured by 2 small levers – one on each side – you pull down to release the ring. The ring may or may not be attached at the bottom. Remove or lower the ring and then look at the position of the shuttle forked area. Remembering where it is in relationship to the piece behind it will aid in replacing it easily. Remove the shuttle by bringing it straight out of the enclosure. Holding the pin in the center can help. Before putting the ring and/or the shuttle on the towel, wipe each clean of any debris. Then it is time to clean all areas that are now accessible. If any threads are sticking out behind the shuttle enclosure, tweezers are often beneficial in grabbing them securely enough to tug them free. With tools and fingers out of the shuttle area, turn the wheel and see if any additional cleaning is necessary.

These areas are what you will clean on a regular schedule. That schedule will depend on what you are sewing and the thread you are using. For example, quilters who use their machine to quilt the top/batting/back (that is a quilt sandwich) will probably have to clean the machine with every bobbin change or more frequently. Any fuzzy fabric, wools, flannels, and other linty type fabric, regardless what is being made with them, will at least deserve a quick check when the bobbin is changed to see if there is build up around the feed dogs. Cotton thread will also leave lint, some more than others depending on a number of factors. A good habit to get into is cleaning your machine whenever you finish sewing for the day, then it will not be an issue when you return.

Some machines let you simply swing the front cover of your machine open for cleaning and changing the light bulb. If you are so lucky to have one like this, include a quick removal of lint and thread that may be in that area. Other machines have one or two screws holding that front plate on and usually take a regular screwdriver to remove the piece and give you access to clean that area. Wipe away any oil build up that may have collected on moving parts.

If you have a computerized machine, I doubt if you can go any further with ordinary screwdrivers. Other machines, you may be able to remove all of the plastic body parts. I like doing this to study the mechanics of the machine in good working order, so if it stops working correctly I may be able to take off the body and see where the problem could be and with luck fix it myself. Sometimes, even back where general maintenance isn’t going to reach, lint and threads can find their way back there and cause some problems. I usually only do the full maintenance cleaning once a year, unless needed more often.

Remove any body pieces held on with normal screws and wipe them clean and place them on the towel with the screws. Closely inspect all the areas to remove dust and lint and stray strings to the best of your ability. After cleaning, I slowly turn the wheel and a) watch the movement of the internal parts, b) see if additional debris is exposed and remove it. Likewise, I like to move any nobs or levers on the front to see how they change the movement inside.

Oiling

Oiling is the second step in maintenance to keep machines running smoothly. I recommend you follow the procedure in the owner manual and use a high grade oil made specifically for sewing machines. I use an oil that comes in a bottle with an extendable nozzle making it easy to reach the difficult areas.

I can’t stress enough if your manual says “one drop” of oil, one drop is sufficient and two drops will run off and you will just waste oil and have to clean it up. The manufacturer manual should have a diagram showing all the spots to apply the oil. If it has arrows to the top of the machine, there are holes that drops the oil where it goes without removing the top piece. Usually there is one near the right that lubricates parts driven by the wheel and one near the left that lubricates where the needle rod is attached to the driving mechanism. I also put just a spot of oil on the mid point of the needle rod so it slides quietly through the mounts. If you put more than a tiny spot of oil, you will have oil dripping off for what seems like forever and can ruin whatever you are sewing. Good rule to follow is to sew several rows of stitches on a scrap piece of fabric until you feel confident no oil will be getting on the fabric.

I also put a spot of oil on the shuttle case back before reinstalling the shuttle. The shuttle moves more smoothly so there is never drag on the bobbin case or your thread.

Reconstruction

It is time now to work backwards, returning parts to where you removed them. Don’t forget to check the bobbin case for lint and stray threads before putting it in the shuttle area.

Once every thing but the needle is back where it came from and you don’t have any extra screws (LOL!), it is time to reconnect the power cord. With scrap fabric under the foot, press the power control, slowly increase speed to as fast as it will go and then back to normal speed for a couple minutes. This does two things: 1) making the parts move as they are intended helps the oil lubricant get to all the areas it needs to be; and 2) if it doesn’t run correctly you will most likely find out before the speed has a chance to get beyond starting as the noise will be obvious. What you should hear is the normal noise you are use to become quieter. A well maintained machine should be quiet, not silent, but quiet.

If you don’t intend to sew anytime soon, you don’t have to put a needle in place. If you do, put in the most common size you use so you won’t have to change it for the next project. Leave the empty bobbin holder in the shuttle so you will know where it is.

One last thing to clean – the tension disks. For some machines, the tension disks are on the front of the machine, but my Bernina tension is inside, so a bit more tricky. Loosen the tension disks completely so you can clean the whole disk. Simple dental floss works well for this job. I’ve also used pipe cleaners. Carefully, place the dental floss between then tension disks and slide it back and forth and then complete the circle. I like to use the wax floss so it not only cleans but makes a nice smooth surface for the thread to move over. Non-wax floss may start to shred during the cleaning process and become lodged between the disks. Then you will have to learn how to disassemble the tension. That is for another post! If using the pipe cleaner, you use it the same as the floss. Pipe cleaners are excellent if it has been awhile since you have cleaned the tension, or if you find the thread fraying or sticking and the tension dial has not been altered from where the tension normally is for this weight of thread.

If your tension is inside the machine, loosen it with the adjustment dial and thread the machine with the floss, bringing it up through the tension disks. At that point, take both ends and see-saw around the disks, cleaning the best you can. I have not used a pipe cleaner on my Bernina tension as I can’t see what is taking place.

A damp warm rag should be all you need for cleaning the outside. And when you are all finished, it is a good idea to put it back in the case/cabinet or put a cute sewing machine cover on. Don’t have one? You could make one. Perhaps I’ll do a Sew-Along on just that!

Disclaimer

Your manual should be your guide in cleaning your machine. If your machine is still under warranty, please do not veer from the manual with doing maintenance and chance voiding your warranty. If you purchased your machine from a dealer, they should be able to show you how to clean your machine properly. Although I don’t believe anything I have written about can harm your machine, I am not liable for your actions and cleaning methods. The purpose of this article was to make you aware that sewing machines require maintenance on a regular schedule after use, plus a more thorough check-up from a certified sewing machine repairman who can clean areas you can’t get to, adjust the timing, and be sure you are getting the best stitch possible, should be done in addition. Talk to your repairman about how often a shop check-up should be done.

To End My Story

Remember the machine I was talking about at the first of this lengthy post? Well, the lint was so packed around, in and under the feed dogs, I don’t know how they could move the fabric through! It resembled heavy, thick felt! Same for the bobbin shuttle area and deeper into the front of the machine! Test time had arrived! It was music to my ears as the oil spread to dry areas and the machine began to hum.